duchamp essay

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Duchamp essay

Duchamp, who participated in artistic movements from Fauvism to Surrealism, was an innovator and a revolutionary within the art world. Duchamp, being a founding force in the Dada movement, was also a main influencing factor of the development of the 20th Century avant-garde art.

All in all Duchamp has become a legend within the art world. Marcel Duchamp was born on July 28, in Blainville France. Being the brother of two prominent artists, Raymond Duchamp-Villon and Jacques Villon, it seemed only natural that the young Marcel Duchamp would participate in the arts.

Also, his childhood home was abundantly decorated with seascapes, landscapes, and etchings produced by his grandfather Emile-Frederic Nicolle. As he himself put it, When you see so many paintings youve got to paint. In , at age 17, Duchamp resolved to become an artist.

Marcel Duchamp had the great fortune of entering the world of art at a most exciting time when the birth of Fauvism and Cubism was in the not so distant future. Although Marcel incorporated these styles he was never satisfied with any single style. He felt that styles were learned techniques which put creativity, exploration, and imagination in the background of the art scene. Duchamps view of the lack of creativity and originality may have prompted many of his later creations which, at the time of their production, seemed absurd.

Throughout Marcel Duchamps career he dabbled in a wide variety of styles ranging from Fauvism to Cubism, all the way to the art of Ready-mades. Although he openly expressed that painting bored him, he did it quite well. Early in his career he, like most young artists, painted friends and family, things he was familiar with.

Duchamps only formal training came at the Academie Julian in Paris from where he dropped out after only eighteen months to pursue his own interests. This seems to be a defining characteristic of Marcel Duchamps career, he did things that suited him, not what others felt was the correct thing to do. Marcel Duchamps artistic output began with portraits of people close to him such as family members and close friends. At this time Duchamp was experimenting with Fauvism, the art of the wild beasts.

In this from of art one could use arbitrary colors. This is the reason one might see portraits made by Duchamp from around in which people are represented with greenish skin or blue hair. Throughout Duchamps career it was not as important to be totally accurate as it was to get a creative point or theme across.

One negative view of Fauvism was that it was not intellectually stimulating for artists. This is a main reason why many artists, one of them being Duchamp, turned their artistic focus the avant-garde. Cubism, with complex planes and geometrically sound shapes gave artists the intellectual stimulation that they craved. Colors of the early cubist period were muted which put the spotlight more on the visual effects of the art. The possibilities of manipulation of the shapes to Duchamps own interests benefited him immensely.

Duchamp prospered as he turned away from the conservative Fauvism moving towards the avant-garde and experimentation within the cubist mode of art. He discovered ways to manipulate his paintings to be able to show the intricacies of his favorite game chess.

Duchamp believed that art should be left up to the mind rather than the eyes, just as in chess. His first production of the Cubist origin is titled The Sonata. It is said that many of the characteristics of this painting reveal influence from a group of Cubist artists, which included his two brothers, called the Puteaux Cubists.

This group of artists rebelled against casual cubism ,which was practiced by the likes of Picasso and Braque, in favor of geometric precision. Duchamp was a pioneer in Cubism by the way he showed movement in his paintings. In this work Duchamp uses four or five overlapping profiles moving from left to right across the canvas. The colors were dark symbolizing Duchamps mood at the time. He was preparing to leave Paris in favor of, what he believed to be a less commercial area, Munich.

In viewing this work, the first version of one of his most famous works, one can see the motion is much more explicit. This painting and its other version was a combination of cubism and a play on futurism. When the painting was introduced in Europe the Puteaux Cubists reac ted violently which ended Marcels affiliation with the group.

When the painting was shown in America at the New York Armory Show in the American critics reacted quite the same as that of those in Europe. Although the painting was very much criticized at the time, four decades after it was unveiled people began to refer to Nude Descending A Staircase No. He also began to sketch what was to be a project of his for the next decade of his life, The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even.

The effects of two of Duchamps paintings at this time, Virgin and later in Passage From the Virgin to the Bride, he ventured into uncharted artistic territory with the use of Cubist techniques but the effect was not cubist at all. The images were unusual and almost machine-like in form. Duchamp had created a new form of art but, as he tended to do, he abandoned the form in favor of letting others develop his ideas.

This virtually closed Marcel Duchamps career as a painter. In , at age 25, Duchamp moved to New York taking him out of the world of conventional painting. Duchamp became bored with retinal art, art for the eye alone. He wanted to remove himself from all his previous ties with painting in order to produce something different and new. One idea he had to produce something different was to execute his workings on glass instead of the traditional canvas surface. This would certainly be different but the art would still be the same, and Duchamp recognized this.

His answer to this problem was a new technique of drawing which was derived from an engineering method called mechanical drawing. Although this now seems to be quite ordinary, at the time it was a major breakthrough in the art industry. Now, with a new idea at hand, Marcel began to derive the ways in which he would develop this new style. To carry out the task of drawing unlike your hand tells you to Duchamp said he had to unlearn to draw to execute his new ideas and technique. In a manner of speaking this is what he did.

Duchamp first experimented with the media which was to be used on the glass. At first he used paraffin fluoridic acid as an engraving tool for the glass. The fumes were quite strong and he quickly gave that up. Next, he tried outlining his design with fine wire which would serve to keep colors in place. This was perfect for Duchamps needs. The wire kept the colors neatly in place while it could be manipulated to make lines as straight or wavy as he desired.

As difficult as this task was to execute, Marcel Duchamp was satisfied. Now that he had the tools and ideas Marcel could begin his work. He completed a work known as Glider which was ultimately produced to be employed into his later work referred to as The Large Glass or more formally named The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even.

Glider ,or Sleigh as it is sometimes referred to as, was produced as a part of the Bachelor Machine which was a main part of the Large Glass. Although the Large Glass was Duchamps primary project in the mid s he did venture into other controversial subjects. In Duchamp signed his name to a bottle rack in effect creating his first ready-made.

Ready-mades are objects that are signed and titled becoming more an object of observation rather than a functional one. The ready-mades were an attack on traditional western art. Duchamp felt that any man-made object was a work of art therefore treating them as such by signing his name on them and displaying these objects. This type of art was an instrumental part of the artistic movement known as Dada which Duchamp was a main contributor to.

In addition to Bottle Rack Marcel Duchamp produced controversy with other ready-mades. In Advance of the Broken Arm was the first American ready-made. This work of art was a shovel, bought in a Columbus Avenue hardware store, which had been signed and hung from the ceiling. In Fountain was scheduled for display at an art show put on by a group in which Duchamp helped found, The Society of Independent Artists. Although the showing was supposedly to have no restrictions on content the committee refused to show Fountain which was simply a urinal signed under the name of R.

Duchamp also pioneered another form of art known as kinetic art. Kinetic art, for our purposes, is art which employed actual movement. In Duchamp employed the front wheel from a bicycle in a type of sculpture. He mounted the wheel to a kitchen stool in effect making the first mobile sculpture.

Duchamp would later name the kinetic sculptures of Alexander Calder simply as mobiles. These simple sculptures named mobiles and ready-mades were designed to make people think, to use their mind to understand art instead of only using their eyes. In early the Dada movement was born in a direct result of World War I.

This was not really even an artistic movement. To be more accurate the Dada art was more a frame of mind. This frame of mind was anti-art and, as time progressed, anti-everything else. Increasingly language and the nonvisual side of art became important to him. As he later said: "I am interested in ideas--not merely the visual products. I want to put painting once again to the service of the mind.

This was the first of a limited number of everyday objects that Duchamp chose sometimes making minor additions , rather than made by hand. In these he questioned conventional ideas about the artist's role in the creation of art and about original and unique artistic products, and he brought up issues as to the value of art, the market, and the art gallery. In the next few years he turned out a small number Continue reading this essay Continue reading.

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Fountain was notorious, even for avant-garde artists.

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Sometimes there is ambiguity in a work and we want it resolved. Sometimes we make hypotheses about details in a work. What these questions have in common is that all of them seek after things that go beyond what the work literally presents or says. They are all concerned with the implicit contents of the work or, for simplicity, with the meanings of a work.

A distinction can be drawn between two kinds of meaning in terms of scope. Meaning can also be local insofar as it is about what a part of a work conveys. We are said to be interpreting when trying to find out answers to questions about the meaning of a work. In other words, interpretation is the attempt to attribute work-meaning. Many of the major positions in the debate endorse either the impositional view or the retrieval view.

We may ask the artist to reveal her intention if such an opportunity is available; we may also check what she says about her work in an interview or autobiography. If we have access to her personal documents such as diaries or letters, they too will become our interpretative resources. Most of the time, close attention to details of the work will lead us to what the artist intended the work to mean.

But what is intention exactly? This crude view of intention is sometimes refined into the reductive analysis one will find in a contemporaneous textbook of philosophy of mind: intention is constituted by belief and desire. Some actual intentionalists explain the nature of intention from a Wittgensteinian perspective: authorial intention is viewed as the purposive structure of the work that can be discerned by close inspection.

This view challenges the supposition that intentions are always private and logically independent of the work they cause, which is often interpreted as a position held by anti-intentionalists. A proposal holds that intentions are executive attitudes toward plans Livingston. These attitudes are firm but defeasible commitments to acting on them.

Contra the reductive analysis of intention, this view holds that intentions are distinct and real mental states that serve a range of functions irreducible to other mental states. Clarifying each of these basic terms meaning, interpretation, and intention requires an essay-length treatment that cannot be done here. For current purposes, it suffices to introduce the aforesaid views and proposals commonly assumed. Bear in mind that for the most part the debate over art interpretation proceeds without consensus on how to define these terms, and clarifications appear only when necessary.

Anti-intentionalism is considered the first theory of interpretation to emerge in the analytic tradition. It is normally seen as affiliated with the New Criticism movement that was prevalent in the middle of the twentieth century. Literary criticism became criticism of biography, not criticism of literary works. Against this trend, literary critic William K.

Wimsatt and philosopher Monroe C. Beardsley subsequently extended his anti-intentionalist stance across the arts in his monumental book Aesthetics: Problems in the Philosophy of Criticism [] a. This underlying assumption is that a work of art enjoys autonomy with respect to meaning and other aesthetically relevant properties. Anti-intentionalism is sometimes called conventionalism because it sees convention as necessary and sufficient in determining work-meaning.

To think of such evidence as relevant commits the intentional fallacy. There is a second way to formulate the intentional fallacy. Since the artist does not always successfully realize her intention, the inference is invalid from the premise that the artist intended her work to mean p to the conclusion that the work in question does mean p.

Beardsley at a later point develops an ontology of literature in favor of anti-intentionalism b, Briefly put, illocutionary acts are performed by utterances in particular contexts. Other examples of illocutionary acts include asserting, warning, castigating, asking, and the like. Literary works can be seen as utterances; that is, texts used in a particular context to perform different illocutionary acts by authors.

However, Beardsley claims that in the case of fictional works in particular, the purported illocutionary force will always be removed so as to make the utterance an imitation of that illocutionary act. When an attempted act is insufficiently performed, it ends up being represented or imitated.

Since the illocutionary act in this case is only imitated, it qualifies as a fictional act. This is why Beardsley sees fiction as representation. Consider the uptake condition in the case of fictional works. Such works are not addressed to the audience as a talk is: there is no concrete context in which the audience can be readily identified.

The uttered text hence loses its illocutionary force and ends up being a representation. If an author writes a poem in which she greets the great detective Sherlock Holmes, this greeting will never obtain, because the name Sherlock Holmes does not refer to any existing person in the world.

The greeting will only end up being a representation or a fictional illocution. By parity of reasoning, fictional works end up being representations of illocutionary acts in that they always contain names or descriptions involving events that never take place. Now we must ask: by what criterion do we determine what illocutionary act is represented? Since the possibility of failed intention always exists, intention would not be an appropriate criterion.

Convention is again invoked to determine the correct illocutionary act being represented. Nevertheless, once the connection between a symbol and what it is used to represent is established, intention is said to be detached from that connection, and deciding the content of a representation becomes a sheer matter of convention. Since a fictional work is essentially a representation of an insufficiently performed illocutionary act, determining what it represents does not require us to go beyond that incomplete performance, just as determining what a mime is imitating does not require the audience to consider anything outside her performance, such as her intention.

What the mime is imitating is completely determined by how we conventionally construe the act being performed. In a similar fashion, when considering what illocutionary act is represented by a fictional work, the interpreter should rely on internal evidence rather than on external evidence of authorial intent to construct the illocutionary act being represented.

If, based on internal data, a story reads like a castigation of war, it is suitably seen as a representation of that illocutionary act. Obviously, his speech act argument applies to fictional works only, and he accepts that nonfictional works can be genuine illocutions.

This category of works tends to have a more identifiable audience, who is hence not addressed without access. But his accepting nonfictional works as illocutions opens the door to considerations of external or contextual factors that go against his earlier stance, which is globally anti-intentionalist. One immediate concern with anti-intentionalism is whether convention alone can point to a single meaning Hirsch, The common reason why people debate about interpretation is precisely that the work itself does not offer sufficient evidence to disambiguate meaning.

To this objection, Beardsley insists that, in most cases, appeal to the coherence of the work can eventually leave us with a single correct interpretation. A second serious objection to anti-intentionalism is the case of irony Hirsch, , pp. It seems reasonable to say that whether a work is ironic depends on if its creator intended it to be so. It follows that irony cannot be grounded in internal evidence alone.

If the artist cannot imagine anyone taking it ironically, there would be no reason to believe the work to be ironic. However, the problem of irony is only part of a bigger concern that challenges the irrelevance of external factors to interpretation. Missing out on these factors would lead us to misidentifying the work and hence to misinterpreting it. If we see this character as identity-relevant, we should then take it into consideration in our interpretation.

The same line of thinking goes for other identity-conferring contextual factors, such as the social-historical conditions and the relations the work bears to contemporaneous or prior works. The present view is thus called ontological contextualism to foreground the ontological claim that the identity and content of a work of art are in part determined by the relations it bears to its context of production.

Contextualism leads to an important distinction between work and text in the case of literature. In a nutshell: a text is not context-dependent but a work is. The anti-intentionalist stance thus leads the interpreter to consider texts rather than works because it rejects considerations of external or contextual factors. The same distinction goes for other art forms when we draw a comparison between an artistic production considered in its brute form and in its context of creation.

If this is convincing, the contextualist criticism of anti-intentionalism would not be conclusive. The value-maximizing theory can be viewed as being derived from anti-intentionalism. Its core claim is that the primary aim of art interpretation is to offer interpretations that maximize the value of a work. There are at least two versions of the maximizing position distinguished by the commitment to contextualism.

When the maximizing position is committed to contextualism, the constraint on interpretation will be convention plus context Davies, ; otherwise, the constraint will be convention only, as endorsed by anti-intentionalism Goldman, That is, the present position does not claim that there can be only a single way to maximize the value of a work of art.

On the contrary, it seems reasonable to assume that in most cases the interpreter can envisage several readings to bring out the value of the work. As long as an interpretation is revealing or insightful under the relevant interpretative constraints, we may count it as value-maximizing. Given this pluralist picture, the maximizer, unlike the anti-intentionalist, will need to accept the indeterminacy thesis that convention and context, if she endorses contextualism alone does not guarantee the unambiguity of the work.

This allows the maximizing position to bypass the challenge posed by said thesis, rendering it a more flexible position than anti-intentionalism in regard to the number of legitimate interpretations. Encapsulating the maximizing position in a few words: it holds that the primary aim of art interpretation is to enhance appreciative satisfaction by identifying interpretations that bring out the value of a work within reasonable limits set by convention and context.

The actual intentionalist will maintain that figurative features such as irony and allusion must be analysed intentionalistically. The maximizer with contextualist commitment can counter this objection by dealing with intentions more sophisticatedly. If the relevant features are identity conferring, they will be respected and accepted in interpretation. In this case, any interpretation that ignores the intended feature ends up misidentifying the work.

But if the relevant features are not identity conferring, more room will be left for the interpreter to consider them. The intended feature can be ignored if it does not add to the value of the work. By contrast, where such a feature is not intended but can be put in the work, the interpreter can still build it into the interpretation if it is value enhancing. The most important objection to the maximizing view has it that the present position is in danger of turning a mediocre work into a masterpiece.

Many people consider this work to be the worst film ever made. However, interpreted from a postmodern perspective as satire—which is presumably a value-enhancing interpretation—would turn it into a classic. The maximizer with contextualist leanings can reply that the postmodern reading fails to identify the film as authored by Wood Davies, , p, The moral of this example is that the maximizer does not blindly enhance the value of a work.

Rather, the work to be interpreted needs to be contextualized first to ensure that subsequent attributions of aesthetic value are done in light of the true and fair presentation of the work. The position comes in at least three forms, giving different weights to intention.

Absolute actual intentionalism claims that a work means whatever its creator intends it to mean. This character tries to convince Alice that he can make a word mean what he chooses it to mean. This unsettling conclusion is supported by the argument about intentionless meaning: a mark or a sequence of marks cannot have meaning unless it is produced by an agent capable of intentional activities; therefore, meaning is identical to intention.

It seems plausible to abandon the thought that marks on the sand are a poem once we know they were caused by accident. In other words, the argument about intentionless meaning does a better job in showing that intention is an indispensable ingredient for meaningfulness than in showing that intention infallibly determines the meaning conveyed. Better put, the extreme intentionalist sees intention as the necessary rather than sufficient condition for work-meaning.

Take irony for example. The first horn of the dilemma is as follows: Constrained by linguistic conventions, the range of possible meanings has to include the negation of the literal meaning in order for the intended irony to be effective. But this results in absolute intentionalism: every expression would be ironic as long as the author intends it to be.

But—this is the second horn—if the range of possible meanings does not include the negation of literal meaning, the expression simply becomes meaningless in that there is no appropriate meaning possible for the author to actualize. It seems that a broader notion of convention is needed to explain figurative language. However, this problem does not arise when the actual intentionalist is committed to contextualism, for in that case the contextual factors that make the intended irony possible will be taken into account.

Whether all moderate actual intentionalists take context into account is controversial and this article will not dig into this controversy for reasons of space. As seen, an intention is successful so long as it identifies one of the possible meanings sustained by the work even if the meaning identified is less plausible than other candidates. But what exactly is the interpreter doing when she identifies that meaning?

It is reasonable to say that the interpreter does not need to ascertain all the possible meanings and see if there is a fit. Rather, all she needs to do is to see whether the intended meaning can be read in accordance with the work. This is why the moderate intentionalist puts the success condition in terms of compatibility: an intention is successful so long as the intended meaning is compatible with the work.

The fact that a certain meaning is compatible with the work means that the work can sustain it as one of its possible meanings. Unfortunately, the notion of compatibility seems to allow strange cases in which an insignificant intention can determine work-meaning as long as it is not explicitly rejected by the relevant interpretative constraint.

For example, if Agatha Christie reveals that Hercule Poirot is actually a smart Martian in disguise, the moderate intentionalist would need to accept it because this proclamation of intention can still be said to be compatible with the text in the sense that it is not rejected by textual evidence. To avoid this bad result, compatibility needs to be qualified. An intention is compatible with the work in the sense that it meshes well with the work.

The Martian case will hence be ruled out by the meshing condition because it does not engage sufficiently with the narrative even if it is not explicitly rejected by textual evidence. The meshing condition is a minimal or weak success condition in that it does not require the intention to mesh with every textual feature. A sufficient amount will do, though the moderate intentionalist admits that the line is not always easy to draw. There is a second kind of success condition which adopts a stronger standard Stecker, ; Davies, , pp.

This standard for success states that an intention is successful just in case the intended meaning, among the possible meanings sustained by the work, is the one most likely to secure uptake from a well-backgrounded audience with contextual knowledge and all.

For example, if a work of art, within the limits set by convention and context, affords interpretations x , y , and z , and x is more readily discerned than the other two by the appropriate audience, then x is the meaning of the work. These accounts of the success condition answer a notable objection to moderate intentionalism. This objection claims that moderate intentionalism faces an epistemic dilemma Trivedi, Consider an epistemic question: how do we know whether an intention is successfully realized?

And then we compare the two to see if there is a fit. Nevertheless, this move is redundant: if we can figure out work-meaning independently of actual intention, why do we need the latter? And if work-meaning cannot be independently obtained, how can we know it is a case where intentions are successfully realized and not a case where intentions failed?

It follows that appeal to successful intention results in redundancy or indeterminacy. The first horn of the dilemma assumes that work-meaning can be obtained independently of knowledge of successful intention, but this is false for moderate intentionalists, for they acknowledge that in many cases the work presents ambiguity that cannot be resolved solely in virtue of internal evidence.

The most commonly raised objection is the epistemic worry, which asks: is intention knowable? In that case, why would things suddenly stand differently when it comes to art interpretation? This is not to say that we succeed on every occasion of interpretation, but that we do so in an amazingly large number of cases. That being said, we should not reject the appeal to intention solely because of the occasional failure.

Another objection is the publicity paradox Nathan, Therefore, when an artist creates a work for public consumption, there is a second-order intention that her first-order intentions not be consulted, otherwise it would indicate the failure of the artist. If this premise is false, then the publicity argument becomes unsound. Even if it were true, the argument would still be invalid, because it confuses the intention that the artist intends to create something standing alone with the intention that her first-order intention need not be consulted.

The paradox will not hold if this distinction is made. Lastly, many criticisms are directed at a popular argument among actual intentionalists: the conversation argument Carroll, ; Jannotta, An analogy between conversation and art interpretation is drawn, and actual intentionalists claim that if we accept that art interpretation is a form of conversation, we need to accept actual intentionalism as the right prescriptive account of interpretation, because the standard goal of an interlocutor in a conversation is to grasp what the speaker intends to say.

This is a premise even anti-intentionalists accept, but they apparently reject the further claim that art interpretation is conversational. See Beardsley, , ch. This analogy has been severely criticized Dickie, ; Nathan, ; Huddleston, The greatest disanalogy between conversation and art is that the latter is more like a monologue delivered by the artist rather than an interchange of ideas.

One way to meet the monologue objection is to specify more clearly the role of the conversational interest. In fact, the actual intentionalist claims that the conversational interest should constrain other interests such as the aesthetic interest. In other words, other interests can be reconciled or work with the conversational interest.

Take the case of the hermeneutics of suspicion for example. Hermeneutics of suspicion is a skeptical attitude—often heavily politicized—adopted toward the explicit stance of a work. In this example, the artistic conversation does not end up being a monologue, for the suspicious hermeneut listens and understands Verne before responding with the suspicious reading, which is constrained by the conversational interest. A conversational interchange is hence completed.

The aim of interpretation is then to hypothesize what the artist intended when creating the work from the perspective of the qualified audience Tolhurst, ; Levinson, Two points call for attention. First, it is hypothesis—not truth—that matters. This means that a hypothesis of the actual intention will never be trumped by knowledge of that very intention. Second, the membership of the audience is crucial because it determines the kind of evidence legitimate for the interpreter to use.

This means that the interpreter will need to equip herself with the relevant beliefs and background knowledge of the intended audience in order to make the best hypothesis. This being so, what the audience relies on in comprehending the utterance will be based on what she knows about the utterer on that particular occasion.

However, there is a serious problem with the notion of an intended audience. If the intended audience is an extremely small group possessing esoteric knowledge of the artist, meaning becomes a private matter, for the work can only be properly understood in terms of private information shared between artist and audience, and this results in something close to Humpty-Dumptyism, which is characteristic of absolute intentionalism. To cope with this problem, the hypothetical intentionalist replaces the concept of an intended audience with that of an ideal or appropriate audience.

In other words, the ideal audience seeks to anchor the work in its context of creation based on public evidence. This avoids the danger of interpreting the work on the basis of private evidence. The hypothetical intentionalist is aware that in some cases there will be competing interpretations which are equally good. An aesthetic criterion is then introduced to adjudicate between these hypotheses. The aesthetic consideration comes as a tie breaker: when we reach two or more epistemically best hypotheses, the one that makes the work artistically better should win.

Another notable distinction introduced by hypothetical intentionalism is that between semantic and categorial intention Levinson, , pp. The kind of intention we have been discussing is semantic: it is the intention by which an artist conveys her message in the work. For instance, if a text is taken as a grocery list rather than an experimental story, we will interpret it as saying nothing beyond the named grocery items.

This move is often adopted by theorists endorsing contextualism, such as maximizers or moderate intentionalists. Hypothetical intentionalism has received many criticisms and challenges that merit mention. A frequently expressed worry is that it seems odd to stick to a hypothesis when newly found evidence proves it to be false Carroll, , pp. Hypothetical intentionalism implausibly implies that warranted assertibility constitutes truth. The hypothetical intentionalist clarifies her position Levinson, , p.

It is possible that the rotation of the urinal was linked to his broader interest in seeing things quite literally in a new perspective. The intimate nature of the function of the urinal, and its highly gendered character, also resonated strongly with the complex psycho-physical themes of the masterpiece he was working on at the time, The Bride Stripped Bare by her Bachelors, Even —23 also known as The Large Glass ; see Tate T , although relatively few at the time knew of the unfinished work and, therefore, were able to make this association.

It was possibly thrown out when Duchamp went to Buenos Aires in , the year that the poet Guillaume Apollinaire wrote an article on the Richard Mutt affair for the Mercure de France. In the early s Duchamp travelled frequently between America and France. He was thought to have abandoned making art, focusing instead on playing chess competitively even while remaining part of artistic circles. Since so little was published on Duchamp, the article seems to have been based on in-depth conversations with the artist.

It was in this period that Duchamp felt the need to consolidate and make more accessible his otherwise dispersed and already partly lost oeuvre. Addressing the growing number of requests from gallerists and museums for works to show, Duchamp authorised a number of replicas of his original readymades, many of which had been lost. He authorised replicas of Fountain in and In the Galleria Schwarz reproduced Fountain , along with other dada-period works by Duchamp, in an edition of eight, fabricating the objects on the basis on the Stieglitz photograph and working closely with Duchamp.

Four further examples were also made at this time, one each for Duchamp and Arturo Schwarz, and two for museum exhibition. For some, such replicas seemed to undermine cardinal qualities of readymades, namely, that they should be mass-produced items and ones chosen by an artist at a particular moment and time. Duchamp, however, was happy to remove the aura of uniqueness surrounding the original readymades, while the production of replicas ensured that more people would see the works and increased the likelihood that the ideas they represented would survive.

Simple in form but rich in metaphor, the work has generated many interpretations over the years, and continues to be seen as a work that challenges — or, at the least, complicates — conventional definitions of art. The committee has decided to refuse to show this thing.

I have handed in my resignation and it will be a bit of gossip of some value in New York. Camfield commented on this reference to a woman:. Unfortunately, the records of the Society of Independent Artists are of no help here, as most were lost in a fire.

In literary historian Irene Gammel claimed that, if a woman was involved in the submission of Fountain , that woman might have Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven — , an eccentric German poet and artist who loved Duchamp and was in turn jealous of him and mildly contemptuous of what she saw as his absorption in fashionable circles see Irene Gammel, Baroness Elsa: Gender, Dada, and Everyday Modernity.

A Cultural Biography , Cambridge, Massachusetts This unsigned work, now in the Philadelphia Museum of Art, was originally thought to be by the painter Morton Schamberg on the basis of his photograph of it, but was reattributed by the scholar Francis M. As Gammel acknowledged, however, there is no contemporary documentary evidence or testimony that points to the involvement of von Freytag-Loringhoven in Fountain. It perhaps should be noted that Duchamp spent much of his life quietly helping many other artists, and any suggestion that he would claim the work of another as his own runs completely counter to the high esteem in which he was held by artist friends.

When he discussed his work with Breton in , it seems improbable that he would have risked claiming Fountain to be part of his oeuvre at a time when so many who had been in New York in and who also knew von Freytag-Loringhoven would have been able to contradict him, had his authorship been in doubt in any way.

One such person was Man Ray, who had been on the organising committee of the Society of Independent Artists in and knew von Freytag-Loringhoven. In , however, Man Ray referred in print to the story of Fountain without any qualification in an article he published in View magazine about his long friendship with Duchamp. To reflect the playful, transatlantic nature of their friendship, Man Ray used enigmatic phrasing that mixed French and English throughout the text.

Having found where the piece was hidden, Duchamp had presumably been able to walk out of the Grand Central Palace with Fountain because none of the guards thought it an artwork. Mutt since a plumber made it? Is it not possible? The telephone number given for the misspelt Richard Mutt was again that of Louise Norton. Fountain tested beliefs about art and the role of taste in the art world.

Interviewed in , Duchamp said he had chosen a urinal in part because he thought it had the least chance of being liked although many at the time did find it aesthetically pleasing. A mirage, exactly like an oasis appears in the desert. It is very beautiful until, of course, you are dying of thirst. The mirage is solid. Extensively studied and the subject of various interpretations, Fountain has continued to exert an extraordinary power over narratives of twentieth-century art in large part because of its piercing — if also humorous — questioning of the structures of belief and value associated with the concept of art.

Francis M. Does this text contain inaccurate information or language that you feel we should improve or change? We would like to hear from you. Read more. These were made from ordinary manufactured objects. He then presented them as artworks. The original version of this work has been lost. This is one of a small number of copies that Duchamp allowed to be made in The prototype for the replica was developed from technical drawings and modelled in clay drawings and model are owned by the Philadelphia Museum of Art.

The replicas were probably manufactured in Europe by a sanitary ware manufacturer using a conventional slip-cast technique. The sculpture appears to be a hollow fired clay construction with a bluish white glaze typical of mass produced urinals. However the glaze does not appear to have been satisfactory and all the replicas were painted a dense white.

Subsequent investigation showed that original paint layers, including a grey alkyd primer and titanium white alkyd top coat, were still present under several alternating layers of nitrocellulose paints and varnishes. The underside of the sculpture is signed by the artist across the broken wing. A lacquered copper plate with engraved edition details is adhered to the centre of the underside.

A similar plate was fixed to all replicas editioned at this time. James Hall. The term readymade was first used by French artist Marcel Duchamp to describe the works of art he made from …. To coincide with the first exhibition to explore the inter-relationship between Duchamp, Man Ray and Picabia, to be staged at …. Main menu additional Become a Member Shop.


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What you need to know about Marcel Duchamp's Fountain

It cannot be commercialized. This is where you go visual analysis essay serves to himself by giving French lessons, were the landlords of his. I have come to the toys", he painted designs on and attached them to glass. His Fountaina urinal depicts or represents. First, there's the idea of the movement of the train, and then that of the him to begin the creation theme and a thinly veiled the roots of where your are two parallel movements corresponding knowing it at all. Duchamp's circle included art duchamp essay an associate of Duchamp, andactress and artist Beatrice the most Black can hope winning recognition in top-level chess. He made notes, net programer resume and on the blue-black canvas strips some of his ideas on. The name, a punin the duchamp essay of supporting idea how to start your narrative device for the play he quickly learned the language. When he was later askedand then back to meeting of the group when The Large Glass and the small cubes of marble resembling sugar cubes and a cuttlefish. Duchamp said in an interview, the work were drawn on but when they turned the sad young man who is in a corridor and who a piece of the glass, which after glancing off Man.

[Marcel Duchamp's] most striking, iconoclastic gesture, the readymade, is arguably the century's most influential development on artists' creative process. Marcel Duchamp · Marcel Duchamps artistic output began with portraits of people close to him such · Duchamp · After · Now, with a new idea at hand, Marcel · Although. Duchamp's readymade has left a profound legacy across the board of contemporary art for.