As does Spotto! But again, I've never heard of it. My brain is fried after all that, but one last thought. Some of these games are evidently intended to be simulations of war, not just representations in some abstract way: War Tactics asks in its title, "can Great Britain be invaded?
Did they in fact think so? And if so, did their game-playing affect their fears about the future one way or the other? If the German player in War Tactics won 7 times out of 10, did the players presumably children take that as a warning of what may come? Or did they just treat it as a harmless bit of fun?
No doubt some did see it as just a game, but possibly not all. It was considerably more sophisticated than the proto-wargames discussed here, but not necessarily more accurate. I certainly thought it was, to some degree, accurate, however.
Playing such games was one way in which I tried to understand the Cold War and what might happen in the future, and I do remember getting anxious when the Warsaw Pact won. In fact, I must admit I would sometimes cheat a bit in solitaire games, re-rolling die rolls in important battles to get a "fair" result. Pretty silly, any way you look at it; but I could understand some overly-sensitive boy in , probably already immersed in le Queux and An Englishman's Home , playing War Tactics and thinking that perhaps "Der Tag" was nearly upon him Fascinating stuff.
I remember reading a few years back an argument that the popularity of war toys in GB -- especially high quality tin soldiers -- had something to do with the initial popularity of WWI and the high rate of volunteerism. Has this pretty much been debunked at this point? Hmm, I don't know, but offhand I'd say it was unlikely -- toy soldiers were surely popular from some time in the Victorian period, well before WWI this post would seem to back that up.
So they're part of a Victorian or Edwardian pleasure culture of war, for which I think there is good evidence. But it is interesting to consider how these games fit in to broader attitudes to war. Nearly all of the commercial games here were produced either during a war, or in the tense periods leading up to a war, for reasons which are not hard to understand. But there's a big exception -- Gibson's L'Attaque , Aviation , etc. He started making these not long after WWI and they seem to have been extremely popular.
So how does that fit into the supposed overwhelmingly pacifist mood of the s and early s? Terrific post! Sooo much good stuff here. I love "Food for Thought" - it's a wonder nobody used the Iraq Invasion "52 Most Wanted" playing cards to bang out a similar set. A great source for war game history, if you don't know it already, is the blog Zone of Influence , by Matt Kirschenbaum. And though I think you do know it, I am not ashamed to re-plug my series of posts on the war game roots of tabletop roleplaying games which will soon continue, even if I've been silent on the subject for a couple of weeks now.
I didn't know about ZoI, thanks! And I'm sure I'm not the only one waiting for your next installment of geek archaeology I had a hand-me-down copy of Dover Patrol as a child probably a 40s or 50s version - and may still have in unsaleable tatters somewhere. It was a good game - far superior to Battleships - and got plenty of play despite the plethora of 80s alternatives. Is it why I ended up doing a military history PhD?
Well, there could be worse theories. Great post! About 40 years ago I had two board games that were based on historic as opposed to then contemporary military conflicts. It was for either 2 or 4 players, you could have one Allied squadron against one German squadron or two of each.
The board represented the Western Front as seen from the air. I don't recall how much of a role strategy played in these games as opposed to chance. They must have been part of a series, I remember that each came with a page booklet describing the historical background of the game this was separate from the rulebook. Those AFVs on the cover of "Aviation" look a great deal like the so-called "Birch Gun," which was a period British effort at an self-propelled gun, and which also had a flak role if I'm not mistaken.
Saying it's far superior to Battleships is not saying very much, as that's not much of a game of skill except perhaps in devising search patterns! Was Dover Patrol basically Stratego? These games look to be a bit more complex than Aviation etc, the influence of Tactics II probably. Well spotted!
I'd never heard of it; there's a Wikipedia page and what seems to be a photo here the text is mostly in Russian, but it's tagged "birch gun". It does indeed look very much like the "tank" just under the searchlight beam, in particular. I wonder if it's just convergent evolution -- take an artillery piece with gun shield, lop off the wheels and stick it on top of a tank chassis the searchlight and even the observation balloon on the cover seem similarly to be attached to the top of a tank.
I don't have a firm date on the game, though, other than c. Brisfits the only real aeroplane named in the game were still in service with the RAF at that time as well, though I think not as fighters any more. Just wanted to say, I have a copy of Dover Patrol at home here and it's afforded me many hours of unrealistic amusement.
It's currently waiting for me to to lay hold of enough new stands for the pieces that the essential anonymity of the pieces can be maintained once more; the old ones split very easily. Since it has plastic stands I guess it must be a late printing it has flying boats that are clearly Sunderlands so is I guess a s update of a much earlier game. But just out of relevance to your post I thought I'd say that the covers of the rule booklet wears advertisements for L'Attaque and Tri-Tactics, so Gibson presumably did well out of this self-reinforcement.
I wonder if it's just a coincidence that this series stopped being made and presumably was losing sales in the ss, when the US wargaming industry was getting going Very interesting post. I have an extensive antique wargame and strategy game collection s - that I recently put up on Boardgamegeek.
I set up three geeklists as they are called them so that people could get a feel for the history of strategy games real wargames back then were few and far between but Invasion, War Tactics and a couple others fit the bill. It's the majority of my collection I have the Gibson games and a few others that were already present on BGG. If you have any questions or want any follow up information on the games in my collection feel free to ask.
Wow, that's fantastic, Dan. And I'm jealous. So many games I'd never heard of! Some very interesting ones too, like Blitz the air raid game. Also, far better pictures of some of the components than I have e. So thanks for that. Its a mix of English, Australian, German and American games. I only have 1 French game from the period. I have about 80 antique games now. The outbreak of war caused the sales to drop due to people not wanting to have a game with a Nazi flag on it.
The publishers created a kit of stickers so that people could change the maps to the old German Republic and even the Russian flag so that it wasn't communist. I have a couple sets of the add on flags. The history is fascinating. That Diplomacy looks like it was inspired by Monopoly? I'm just amazed that so many of these ancient games and their flag update kits! It's probably just as well that I'm a poor student with no money to spare for such things Am looking for a copy just a copy of the rules Classic board game Dover Patrol, I used to play the game but the rules have gone astray Just want to play with my young kids Would be really grateful if anyone could scan me the rules and send them to me.
Thanks so much. You can download a scan of the rulebook from BoardGameGeek. I wonder why a British game would have an American bomber on the cover? That's assuming any thought went into it; it may have just been copied at random from the first photo of a big bomber that came to hand. My Name is John Nelson,my Father recently passed away. They date back to the early 's. Most are in good to very good condition.
If you are interested, I can email the entire game list to you. Sorry, but I'm not a collector. I suggest you try BoardGameGeek -- there's a section there for buying and selling games. This Feudal Game will be loosely based on the popular board game called Stratego.
There will be two opposing sides, and the board game will resemble that of a chess game. There is a white team and a black team. The white team will move first. The objective of the game is for the King to reach the last end zone, which will be referred to as the Castle Walls. The moment the King reaches the Castle Walls, the game ends, and to the victor goes the spoils. Although it is based on a chess game, the opposing sides will never see the characters. The symbol for each character is hidden behind a movable piece.
See the image below for reference:. For this reason, this game requires an arbiter or a referee to figure out who won each time each piece or character will clash. The arbiter will then check who won based on the strength of each character. The Spy can defeat everyone except the peasant. The Noble is more powerful than the Knight, but the Knight is more powerful than the peasant. If the pieces involved are at the same level then the arbiter will signal that it is a draw and remove the said pieces from the board.
The characters for the game will be listed below with the corresponding number of units allowed in the game:. As mentioned earlier, the game will be played like a chess game, and therefore white pieces will have to move first. Black pieces will move next, and so on. It means that an attack is only possible if the black and white pieces are facing each other. The game is made more complicated by the use of cards. Each player will be given six cards each.
The first three contain the symbol of sword and shield. And the next three contains the symbol for farmlands. This card is can enhance the ability of the Noble and the Knight. The card with the sword and shield symbol can increase the capability of a Knight so that if it comes face-to-face with another Knight, the arbiter will not declare a draw.
The symbol for farmlands can enhance the ability of a Noble. And so if a Noble attack another Noble and the player places this card on the board the arbiter will not say that it is a draw, but the one who has the card will win the encounter, and the captured piece will be given to the player who owns the card.
If the opposing player will lay down a similar card, then it will be a draw. The opposing player will be forced to do this because he will realize quickly that his or her opponent has guessed the character behind the said piece. If the opposing player makes a mistake, say, for instance, he made the mistake of assuming that it is knight versus knight, and so places the card with the sword and shield, but the real character behind the piece is a Noble, then he is defeated and his card taken away by the arbiter or referee.
But he gains the knowledge that this particular piece is a Noble and not a Knight. The arbiter will collect every card that was laid down on the table. Each card can only be played once. Since the players will never know if the attack was made by a character of equal force and therefore they will never know the right time to place the appropriate card on the table. Since this game is like a complicated memory game, they will have to make a guess using the captured pieces and the way the opposing player moves his pieces around the board.
The ultimate goal is for the King to reach the Castle Walls. So each player must design a strategy that will protect the King but, at the same time, move it closer and closer to the Castle Walls.
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|Dissertation conclusion writing service online||They are defined for each potential rank of each unknown opponent pieces: we call them a Belief. Senet was pictured in a fresco found in Merknera 's tomb — BC. User Settings. Hmm, I don't know, but offhand I'd say it was unlikely -- toy soldiers were surely popular from some time in the Victorian period, well before WWI this post would seem to back that up. Children were encouraged to play board games that developed literacy skills and provided moral instruction. No doubt some did see it as just a game, but possibly not all.|
|Ralph emerson essay self reliance||Reducing the size of the state space comes at a cost: it greatly decreases the quality of the AIs. Interesting, but not exactly orthodox air strategy in ! As does Spotto! Anith Krishnan. The same Monte- Carlo algorithm is used to pick a move, with a few handcoded constraints to ensure move quality ie. I wonder why a British game would have an American bomber on the cover?|
Whether it is the product itself or just the packaging, when a company finds that their product is beginning to decline in popularity and sales it must make a decision on how to manage the decline. One of the strategies and the "Best and toughest of all, is to improve the product in a functional sense or revitalize it in some manner" Etzel, Stanton, Walker , pp.
Our group has chosen to revitalize a classic Milton-Bradley board game entitled Stratego. This game has been around since It has survived the test of time and has undergone several different variations including two different computer versions. So with this in mind we feel that game players today are more sophisticated and are more inclined to gravitate to a game that offers the benefits of the technology available in the video game market while still including the parts of the game that they know and love.
By using this advanced technology it is hoped that including an even more exciting aspect to the game will bring back the original lovers of the board version and entice a new generation of fans to try it out. Our belief is that the marriage of a traditional board game that is familiar to most adults and the modernized technology that children are drawn to will be an attractive aspect of this new version of Stratego. By , a game fitting the same description was being sold by a French game manufacturer as L'Attaque , and included French and British army game pieces [source: Collins ].
Gibsons and Sons [source: Gibsons Games ]. Although there has been some dispute about whether L'Attaque inspired Stratego, court papers filed in a licensing dispute between Hasbro and the inventor of a similar game called Strategy name Jacques Johan Mogendorff as the man who created Stratego at an unspecified time before By , Mogendorff's family had been confined to a concentration camp in the Netherlands and in they were moved to a concentration camp in Germany before being freed in Mogendorff licensed Stratego to Smeets and Schippers, a Dutch company, in Then, in , he licensed the game to Hausemann and Hotte for European distribution, and again in for global distribution.
In , the same year that Mogendorff died, Hausemann and Hotte purchased the copyright and U. Later, Milton Bradley also registered a number of copyrights, but these covered ancillary items like the game board and directions. According to court documents filed in the lawsuit, Stratego infringed the copyright for Strategy, but the lawsuit was later dismissed. Hasbro ]. Before you can become a Stratego master, you'll need to master the rank and file members of your army.
As you unpack the game, you'll notice 40 red army pieces and 40 blue army pieces, as well as a game board and, in modern versions, a fortress screen. Each army has seven pieces -- six bombs and one flag -- that do not move after their initial placement on the board. In addition, each army has 33 pieces that can move from place to place on the board, and these can be used to attack opposing pieces.
Each piece is marked with a number rank; the higher the number, the more powerful the rank except in older or nostalgia copies, as discussed in the sidebar above -- though the three lowest-ranked types of pieces have special abilities. There are [source: Hasbro ]:. Before you and your opponent can set up the game, however, you must decide who will be the mastermind behind which army. To do this, hide a red piece in one hand and a blue piece in the other, and have your opponent choose a hand.
The color in the hand he picks will be the color of his army for the game; you'll have the remaining color. It matters because the red army gets to go first. Set the game board between you, with the word Stratego facing each player. You'll want to take turns setting up, or place a solid screen in the middle of the board -- some versions of the game come with the aforementioned fortress screen for that purpose.
Only one piece can be on a square at a time and initially, your pieces can only be placed in the four rows of the game board that are closest to you. We'll explore the strategies of game piece placement in the next section. After both armies have been placed on the board, take down any screen you were using and prepare for the red army's first move.
Players then take turns, keeping in mind that every turn has to include one of two actions -- moving one of your pieces into an adjacent open space or attacking one of your opponent's pieces that sits in an adjacent space.
However, you cannot both move and attack in a single turn with one exception we'll go into on the next page , and diagonal moves aren't allowed in either case. If you have an early copy of Stratego -- or one of the "nostalgia" copies produced in -- the game pieces are ranked from 1 to 10, with 1 being the most powerful number.
Any other version of the game will rank the pieces from 10 to 1, with 10 being the most powerful. As war breaks out on your Stratego board, it's time to go on the offensive. Keep in mind that only one piece can be moved during your turn, so you'll want to expend a fair amount of forethought before you make each move. To put your game piece in an attack position, move it to a space right next to an opposing game piece.
A game piece can't jump over another piece, and it can't jump over or go through the lakes in the middle of the board, so moving into an attack position may take multiple turns to accomplish. The only time a game piece can muscle its way into an already occupied space is when it's attacking an opponent. Give your opponent's game piece a solid tap and prepare yourself for the outcome. You and your opponent must reveal the rank of your game pieces and if your piece is bested, it will be wiped off the board.
But if it's triumphant, it will advance into your opponent's space and you'll remove your opponent's piece. If the pieces are the same rank, both are taken off the board. There are a few exceptions to the movement and rank rules, though. Scouts, miners and spies each have special freedoms. Scouts can move any number of open spaces in a single direction and can also make an attack during a single turn. Although scouts, with a rank of 2, can only take down spies, they're valuable for strategic strikes -- either by potentially sacrificing the scout to reveal one of your opponent's pieces or by making a swift, multi-space move to take out a low-ranking threat -- or to grab an unprotected flag.
Miners are valuable because they can disarm your opponent's bombs and remove them from the board; when a miner disarms a bomb, it moves to occupy the bomb's previous space on the board. Every other game piece, however, will suffer a deadly explosion if it encounters an opponent's bomb. The spy is particularly lethal -- as long as it can evade capture.
Unfortunately, becoming a prisoner of war is a very real risk for the spy because every other ranked piece on the board can capture it. However, it's the only piece that can attack and capture the top-ranked marshal -- provided that the spy is the attacker. It will be captured if a marshal attacks it. Take care when you place your pieces initially, as the early game strategies you employ could determine the outcome of the game.
You'll want a mix of scouts and powerful pieces in the front rows, closest to the enemy army. Because of their low rank, you can sacrifice scouts as you figure out where your opponent's high-ranking pieces are located. And, by placing powerfully ranked pieces on the front row, you can capture enemy scouts as they breach your territory.
Don't, however, send these better-ranking pieces into enemy territory in the beginning of the game; you won't know what they're up against and you'll risk them getting captured or blown up by a bomb. Beware of bomb placement. You may spend plenty of time considering how your bombs can best affect your enemy, but it's important to remember that they could trap your own troops.
Game pieces aren't allowed to jump over other pieces, and if yours don't have room to go around a bomb, they'll be stuck. Your spy is weak because of its rank, but still valuable because it can take out a marshal. Protect your spy by using a general as a bodyguard.
The general's rank is powerful enough to protect your spy by defeating other members of your opponent's army -- except the marshal. But if the marshal does capture your general, you can simply take the marshal out with your spy. As the game progresses, watch the movements of your opponent's army pieces. How and where they move is a great tip-off as to their rank scouts move multiple spaces during a single turn, and bombs and flags never move.
As you notice these movements, be sure to remember any ranks that are revealed during attacks. You can use this information to make strategic decisions about where and how to attack [source: Hasbro ]. Need a great way to bluff your opponent?
Group three of your bombs away from your flag; your opponent will assume they're guarding the prize.