[REQ_ERR: UNKNOWN] [KTrafficClient] Something is wrong. Enable debug mode to see the reason.[REQ_ERR: UNKNOWN] [KTrafficClient] Something is wrong. Enable debug mode to see the reason.[REQ_ERR: UNKNOWN] [KTrafficClient] Something is wrong. Enable debug mode to see the reason.[REQ_ERR: UNKNOWN] [KTrafficClient] Something is wrong. Enable debug mode to see the reason.
Chang-Rae Lee focuses on the struggles that Asian Americans have to face and endure in American society. Native Speaker suggests that if one looks different or has the slightest indication that one should have an accent, they will be viewed not as a native of …show more content… If one does not look Caucasian and are believed to be seen as different or an alien, then it is more difficult to claim that one is truly an American native.
Chang-Rae Lee points out that if one does not look like a typical white American , people use different criteria to judge whether or not one is truly an American Native. That criterion is nativity of language. Since America was made upon immigration, many people in this country consists of different cultural backgrounds and races. The collective language of America buttresses the common ground among its native people. Follow-up analysis of individual word use suggests that these differences may be related to differences in content, style, and grammar.
Analysis of individual words suggests that there are indeed differences in content. While lexical density number of content words does not differ considerably See Table 3 , the amount of academic words seems substantially higher in the Korean EFL group with higher NEST support and in the native English speaker group. This value is half that of the native speaker group. While native speaker group performance is not a benchmark for quality, higher amounts of academic vocabulary may suggest increased sophistication of academic essays.
Qualitative analysis of content appeared to confirm the assertion that content of the Korean group with high NEST support was more academic. Words like anomaly and diminished revealed a sophisticated understanding of vocabulary. Furthermore, more precise descriptions of health issues through words like diabetes , larynx , hygiene , and stroke suggested a more specific and expansive explanation of content.
In addition to more academic words, a larger number of tokens per type in the Korean group with high NEST support Table 3 suggests that word forms were more diverse and sophisticated than their counterparts with low NEST support. This increased use of different word forms, which included a variety of affixes e. In addition to content, aspects of style appeared to differ between groups. As can be seen from Table 4 , Korean EFL learners with higher native speaker instruction utilized more stances for evaluation.
These writers used words like appropriate , bad , and important more often as a means to emphasize validity or invalidity of an argument Table 4. In contrast to these awkward statements, Korean EFL learners with low native speaker support used stances with more accurate collocations.
Refer to the following examples:. Unlike their counterparts, the low native speaker support group of Korean EFL learners used expressions that are more conventional and accurate. Overall, these stances appear to be used to express personal opinions or preferences about an issue, as a means to persuade the reader. This more overtly partial perspective may reflect an influence of NEST instructors from Western contexts, who may value personal opinion more than group consensus, a hallmark of Confucian societies like South Korea.
These learners appeared to rely more on formulaic patterns obtained from input and instruction, thereby revealing a lesser tendency to create novel expressions or express personal opinions. These stances are often used to express opinions indirectly through outside sources e. This perspective is illustrated by more extensive usage of stances for ability or willingness. The word able , for example, is often used with formulaic expressions for reasoning or inference.
If smoking is banned at all restaurants in Korea, we will be able to enjoy the dish more at the restaurants. Since college students are already adults, they should be able to make money for living, independently from their parents. When students have a part-time job and work it, they are able to think about concept of money and consumption. In the above examples, an argument without personal judgment from the author is expressed.
The logical arguments appear to show unbiased opinions of the author, with little awareness of the reader. Unlike words for evaluation or discussion of ease and difficulty, which are characteristic of Korean EFL learners with high NEST instruction, elements of style or ability are not imbued with clear opinion about the argument being proposed.
Korean EFL learners with low NEST instruction may prefer to use stylistic conventions without as much creativity or awareness of the reader. Whereas Korean EFL learners with less NEST support may rely more heavily on speech formulas and collocational knowledge, Korean EFL learners with more NEST support may be more creative in composition, choosing to express personal opinions about the validity or invalidity of an argument.
While more creative, these learners may also use more incorrect or awkward phrases. As with aspects of content and style, grammar within writing of Korean EFL learner groups differed in several distinct ways. For the word do , third person singular, past and present perfect tenses were used more often in the writing of Korean learners with extensive instruction from native speakers See Table 5.
Conversely, frequency of the past tense in the word could was larger in the Korean group with low NEST support. Overall, this finding, along with larger values for root words like do and can among learners with little instruction from native English speakers, may reveal a tendency to rely on basic modals and formulaic expressions for hedging. Concerning grammatical features associated with nouns, the high native support group of Korean EFL learners and native English speakers used I more often, supporting a claim that personal experience and opinion is used more extensively to support arguments of these groups.
Such usage may represent an attempt to provide personal opinions that are designed to influence the reader. This method to connect with the reader appears more neutral, perhaps supporting the contention that writings from Korean EFL learners with less NEST instruction are more impartial, logical, and formulaic. However, the definite article, the , was used by Korean EFL learners with high NEST support much more often than native English speakers, perhaps reflecting a growing awareness of the grammatical feature, albeit an incomplete one.
Because this feature is imbued with information about general cultural use e. It appears that larger clauses or sentences were more frequent in the Korean EFL learners with high NEST support and native English speakers, who used words like and and addition more often. This group used relative pronouns like which and who more often than other groups. It also used if more extensively, along with modals like will , can , or should be able to e.
Greater reliance on such logical phrases may support the assertion that content of Korean EFL learners with less NEST instruction is more formulaic, being focused on unbiased interpretation rather than personal evaluation or devices to influence the reader. I read an article, which is about whether teenagers should have a part time job. In my opinion, I support that teenagers have part time jobs in their free time and the reasons are as follows. First, I think that having a part time job can train the teenagers how to earn money and let them know that it is not an easy thing to make money.
From the excerpt, we can see not only a large emphasis on the first person, but a clear attempt to express the opinion of the author. In addition, the word and is used to construct longer sentences. While there is a clear focus on meaning, grammatical accuracy is inconsistent. This style contrasts significantly with texts from learners with little or no native English instruction. Have you ever seen people who smoke in the restaurant? Most people in Korea do not like a person who smokes in the restaurants, so smoking has been banned in most of Korean restaurants.
However, there are still some restaurants where people are allowed to smoke. In my opinion, smoking should be banned at all restaurants in this country. The reasons are below. First, other people in the restaurants can feel uncomfortable ….. As suggested in quantitative analysis, learners use more relative clauses to expand nouns people who smoke, a person who smokes, restaurants where people are allowed to smoke.
At the same time, there appears to be a heightened awareness of grammar, as is revealed by the use of the determiner the. This feature is consistently used throughout the text. In this case, the object is not known by both the writer and the reader. Such an error reflects an awareness of grammatical accuracy, yet it does not reflect awareness of context or the reader. Analysis of word usage has revealed key differences in the essays of Korean EFL writers who have had extensive NEST instruction and those who have not.
These essays also include more academic vocabulary, as well as a larger variety of word forms to enrich essay content. Concerning style, Korean EFL learners with more NEST instruction tend to use stances that evaluate, validate, and state personal opinions about an argument. Learners with low NEST instruction appear to rely on speech formulas, utilizing more unbiased logical arguments that do not reveal either the opinion of the author, nor an awareness of the reader.
Regarding grammar, Korean EFL learners with more NEST support show a heightened awareness of verb tense and agreement; use determiners more often than their counterparts with little NEST instruction; utilize the first person singular more often, which reveals a tendency to use personal experience to support an argument; and tend to combine phrases or sentences using the conjunctions and or addition.
Learners with low NEST instruction use pronouns such as we, you, and they more often, which may be an attempt to avoid personal opinion. They also tend to utilize relative clauses to add complexity to sentences, rather than using conjunctions like and or addition. In general, use of grammar in the study suggests that while Korean EFL learners with extensive NEST instruction use more sophisticated vocabulary, word forms, and grammar to create a novel argument supported by personal experience, Korean EFL learners with low NEST instruction use formulaic and logical speech sequences to express opinions more accurately and neutrally.
Results of the study suggest that both EFL learner groups have distinct advantages. While learners with more NEST instruction made more creative and sophisticated constructions, their counterparts were more grammatically accurate in their use of language. Learners who are taught extensively by NEST instructors may benefit more from exercises that utilize formulaic language, as well as grammar instruction to assist with the editing process.
Learners without instruction from NESTs may benefit from increased tasks that cultivate creativity with language and critical thinking. Specialized instruction in this way may allow all learners to add rhetorical and linguistic variety, while cultivating greater grammatical accuracy.
Although this study has provided useful information concerning EFL writing instruction, limitations in method still exist, highlighting a need for further research. Since educational policies that encourage the hiring of more NESTs may also be coupled with curricular changes, such as the addition of communicative tasks with more speaking and writing, any relationships between these potential covariates must be further investigated.
More experimental or qualitative studies documenting curricular experiences of learners in conjunction with teacher influences can provide a holistic understanding of the EFL learner process, which may then be used to substantially improve instruction. Such study may help educators to develop policies and pedagogical techniques that combine the strengths of diverse groups, thereby enhancing the efficacy of English instruction. Andrews, S. Teacher language awareness. Cenoz, D.
May Eds. Encyclopedia of language and education 3rd ed. New York: Springer. Google Scholar. Brewer, A. Cloud: St. Browne, C. Byun, K. English medium teaching in Korean higher education: Policy debates and reality. Article Google Scholar. Celce-Murcia, M. Chun, S. Copland, F. Coxhead, A. A new academic word list. DeKeyser, R. Skill acquisition theory. Williams Eds. New York: Routledge. DeWaelsche, S. Critical thinking, questioning and student engagement in Korean university English courses.
Discourse [Def. Merriam-Webster Online. Dyson, B. Developmental sequences. Liontas Ed. Hoboken: Wiley. Understanding second language processing: A focus on processability theory Vol. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Book Google Scholar. Harper, C. Misconceptions about teaching English-language learners. Ishikawa, S. Ishikawa Ed. Jiang, W. Jung, M. Korea lifts English education ban for first, second graders. Kang, S. Koreans ranked bottom in English proficiency test.
Keh, C. But… what will the students think? Kim, E. Kim, J. Teaching Korean university writing class. Kim, S. Private tutoring and demand for education in South Korea. Kwon, O. A comparison of English proficiency of Korean, Japanese and Chinese high school students. Laufer, B. Vocabulary size and use: Lexical richness in L2 written production. Lu, X. Ma, L. Advantages and disadvantages of native- and nonnative-English-speaking teachers: Student perceptions in Hong Kong.
Master, P. Systems in English grammar: An introduction for language teachers. Min, S. Moodie, I. English language teaching research in South Korea: A review of recent studies — Murphy, M. Lexical meaning. New York: Cambridge University Press. Niederhauser, J. Motivating learners at south Korean universities. Formulaic language and conceptual socialization: The route to becoming nativelike in L2. Formulaic language in L1 and L2 expert academic writing: Convergent and divergent usage.
Is language teachable? Psycholinguistic experiments and hypotheses. PISA key findings for Korea. Read, J. Assessing vocabulary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Stoeckel, T. A test of the new general service list. Ulla, M. Veliz, L. Wang, L. White, L. Second language acquisition and universal grammar. Yu, G. Lexical diversity in writing and speaking task performances.
Velie, A. The Native American renaissance. Outline of the U. Writing Guide. Other paper types. Social Sciences. Business and administrative studies. Natural Sciences. Formal Sciences. Mathematics Statistics. Professions and Applied Sciences. Free tools Plagiarism Checker Find out if your paper is original. Words to Minutes Converter Wonder how much time you need to deliver your speech or presentation?
Bibliography Generator Don't know how to format the bibliography page in your paper? Words to Pages Converter Use this converter to calculate how many pages a certain number Thesis statement generator Create a strong thesis statement with our online tool to clearly express Analysis Literature. Tired of all the guides and never-ending instructions?
Try a quicker way Order a custom paper. Emma Essay. Sorry, we are still working on this feature. If you need immediate help with your paper, contact our academic writers. Write an essay that explores the problems Lelia faces at the beginning of the story. What is the state of her relationship with Henry at this point?
Why does she hand him the list before she leaves View all Lesson Plans available from BookRags. Copyrights Native Speaker from BookRags. All rights reserved. Toggle navigation. Sign Up. Sign In. Get Native Speaker from Amazon. View the Study Pack. Order our Native Speaker Lesson Plans. Lesson Calendar. Chapter Abstracts. Character Descriptions.
Object Descriptions. Daily Lessons. Fun Activities. Essay Topics. Short Essay Questions. Short Essay Questions Key. Multiple Choice. Multiple Choice Key. Short Answer Questions. Short Answer Questions Key. Oral Reading Evaluation Sheet. Reading Assignment Sheet. Writing Evaluation Form. One Week Quiz A. Two Week Quiz A. Four Week Quiz A.
Native American literature is one of the unique aspects to study if you are interested in learning about the indigenous cultures that once lived in North America. To truly immerse yourself in this field, you need to embrace a multifaceted approach which encompasses the aesthetic, linguistic, psychological, historical, and cultural aspects.
If you have an essay coming up on this subject, here are 14 facts that will set you on the right path. These are some general facts which you can study further and elaborate on while writing a literary analysis paper. You can also check the 20 topics on Native American literature for a literary analysis for more assistance. Need more help? Check how to write a literary analysis on Native American literature to score a great grade. References: Powell, J. Indian linguistic families of America north of Mexico.
Thompson, S. Tales of the North American Indians. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Allen, P. The sacred hoop. Boston: Beacon Press. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico, Velie, A. The Native American renaissance.
Outline of the U. Writing Guide. Other paper types. Social Sciences. Object Descriptions. Daily Lessons. Fun Activities. Essay Topics. Short Essay Questions. Short Essay Questions Key. Multiple Choice. Multiple Choice Key. Short Answer Questions. Short Answer Questions Key. Oral Reading Evaluation Sheet. Reading Assignment Sheet. Writing Evaluation Form. One Week Quiz A. Two Week Quiz A.
Four Week Quiz A. Four Week Quiz B. Eight Week Quiz A. Eight Week Quiz B. Eight Week Quiz C. Eight Week Quiz D. Eight Week Quiz E. Eight Week Quiz F. Eight Week Quiz G. Mid-Book Test - Easy. Final Test - Easy. Mid-Book Test - Medium. Final Test - Medium. Mid-Book Test - Hard. Final Test - Hard.
My Year Abroad.