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Karen May 25, Find Your Comfy Cow! Find your Comfy Cow location now. Custom speech ghostwriter for hire for school. This study investigates the efficacy of timed oral reading as both an assessment and intervention method for evaluating and improving L2 reading fluency. A pre- and post-test was given to 77 international graduate and undergraduate students enrolled in an English for Academic Purposes EAP course at a large public Research I university in the Midwestern United States.
At the end of the thirteen-week intervention, this group of ESL learners was found to have a statistically significant improvement, with a very large effect size, in reading speed: an increase from words per minute wpm to wpm. Our presentation will be devoted to a discussion of why we are interested in oral reading fluency and why we felt it would be a useful tool for assessing and providing intervention to matriculated EAP students. Timed oral reading: A useful method for second-language reading fluency assessment and intervention.
Timed oral reading is a widely used method to assess reading fluency in first-language L1 instructional contexts. Reading fluency is typically operationalized as the ability to read aloud accurately, with appropriate expression prosody, phrasing , and at a speed, such that the oral reading aligns with the meaning of the text Rasinski, This study investigated the efficacy of timed oral reading as a learning-oriented assessment method for evaluating and improving L2 reading fluency.
At the end of the thirteen-week intervention, this group of English as a Second Language ESL learners was found to have a statistically significant improvement, with a very large effect size, in reading speed: an increase from correct words per minute cwpm to cwpm. When the study design was replicated the following semester with a different group of 92 adult ESL learners, using 8 texts at Grade 8 L1 English level, the average pre-test oral reading rate of correct words per minute increased to a post-test of cwpm, as compared to L1 adult speakers of English whose rates range from words per minute.
In addition to a report of this study and its replica over two semesters, this paper presentation will also be devote to a discussion of why we are interested in oral reading fluency and why we felt it would be a useful, learning-oriented assessment tool for matriculated EAP students at this U. The relationship between text borrowing patterns and second language proficiency. This study examined the relationship between text borrowing and second language proficiency, based on analysis of 50 L1 Chinese timed essays.
The development of an essay rating scale for a post-entry English proficiency test. The dramatic increase in enrollment of international undergraduate students at U. To better inform language instruction in an English for Academic Purposes program at a large public university, an internet-based post-entry English proficiency test, the Assessment of College English - International ACE-In was developed.
This presentation focuses on the development of an empirically derived rating scale for the writing assessment included in the ACE-In. Drawing on the literature of L2 rating scale development e. A series of rating and discussion sessions were iteratively conducted with 33 additional essay samples until agreed-upon descriptors were established and an acceptable level of inter-rater reliability reached. These rater norming sessions not only served the purpose of developing and refining an essay rating scale, but also helped to build a community of practice by providing a venue for raters to share what they value as writing instructors Kauper, This presentation provides a practical example of developing an empirically derived rating scale for a timed writing assessment.
With the emphasis on instructor values, we provide a model for creating effective communities of practice through rating scale development. Student needs analysis for an EAP support program at a large Midwestern public university. This presentation focuses on the use of an early-semester student survey for needs analysis in an integrated-skills EAP course offered by a brand-new language bridge program. Survey responses suggest that specific language tasks were perceived as most difficult.
Curricular and co-curricular components targeting at these areas will then be presented. Climer, T. Sustainability and English learning: A future of sustainable learning. Although many ESL textbooks have readings about environmental issues, the concept of sustainability and its three pillars environmental, economic, and social are not taught in many ESL classrooms.
This is unfortunate because sustainability is a very important concept to our world. Sustainability not only deals with how to maintain resources and services for future generations, but it is also about improving and bettering the world. For example, sustainability includes the principal of equality and inclusiveness.
The main outcomes of this presentation are for attendees to be able to understand why and how they can use the concept of sustainability in their own ESL classrooms. The objectives of the presentation are to show how teachers can use the frameworks of conceptual learning and critical thinking to teach a topic related to sustainability in a way that leads to students being able to make meaningful applications to their own learning and life. To this end, the presenter will share several lessons and activities that teachers can use in their own classrooms.
To make this argument, the presenter will model and illustrate how he integrates sustainability into his ESL teaching and material design by using frameworks of conceptual learning and critical thinking. These frameworks emphasize the processes that students go through in discovering that learning goes well beyond memorizing facts and statistics, to making connections and transferring knowledge to understanding key concepts and values about a topic in diverse fields or disciplines.
Crouch, D. Longitudinal development of second language fluency in writing and speaking. Little is known about how complexity and fluency develop together within individual L2 learners. This study analyzed the longitudinal development of oral fluency and global written syntactic complexity in the test responses of 60 first year L1-Chinese first year undergraduate students over two semesters.
The author collected responses to a post-entry computer-administered language proficiency test required of all first year international students with TOEFL scores at or below at a large university in the US. The students took the test at the beginning of the first semester and again at the end of the second semester of a required two course ESL sequence.
For both the written and the spoken task, each student responded in support or opposition to a statement of opinion. Results showed that the test-takers increased their oral fluency significantly but not their global written syntactic complexity. The findings provide evidence that oral fluency and written syntactic complexity develop at different rates in college level L1 Chinese L2 learners.
Pre-post change in L2 oral fluency: The lexico-syntax of large fluency gainers. The theory underlying L2 oral fluency has focused on cognitive processes, particularly proceduralization Anderson, ; Levelt, , and linguistic constructs, especially vocabulary and grammar Segalowitz, Towell et al. However, no research has studied the longitudinal development of L2 oral fluency concurrently with any of the following lexical variables: lexical frequency profile, formulaic language use, and MTLD a measure of lexical diversity.
The purpose of the present study is to clarify the process by which L2 oral fluency, syntax, and vocabulary develop concurrently. Data analysis involved three sequential phases: oral fluency analysis, lexico-syntactic analysis, and discourse analysis. Oral fluency measures were calculated using the transcribed oral test responses of L1-Chinese EAP learners at the beginning and end of a required two-course EAP language and culture sequence at Purdue University.
The task completed was a computer-administered, two-minute argumentative speaking task. This study included eight oral fluency measures: speech rate, mean length of speech run, articulation rate, phonation time ratio, mean length of silent pause, mean length of filled pause, silent pause frequency, and filled pause frequency. For the ten participants who made the largest percentage-wise oral fluency gains in terms of the oral fluency variable associated with the largest effect size of gains , oral transcripts were analyzed to compute descriptive statistics for the three lexical variables mentioned above and three syntactic variables: coordinate clause ratio, dependent clause ratio, and words per T-unit.
Results indicated significant change in all oral fluency measures, except mean length of silent pause and mean length of filled pause. The largest gains were made in mean length of speech run. Of the linguistic variables, the largest longitudinal change was associated with coordinate clause ratio.
Discourse analysis of the transcripts of large fluency gainers' pre-post responses suggested that large fluency gainers used coordinate clauses to build more sophisticated discourse models in the post-test response than they did in the pre-test response. Farner, N. Video blogs for the ESL student: A pragmatic language learning approach to develop fluency in classroom discourse. College students must be able to join classroom discourse.
This can be difficult for many international students. The Video Blog learning approach provides structured fluency practice to help students develop reading fluency in a way that gets them more engaged in classroom discourse.
One of the main goals of this activity is to give students a way to practice their fluent reading comprehension. The skills for fluent reading comprehension include background knowledge, vocabulary knowledge, listening comprehension, pronunciation, and word recognition. Video Blogs enable students to practice using all of these skills.
Gao, J. Concept mapping for guiding rater training in an ESL elicited imitation assessment. Implementation of a 5-point holistic rating scale from 0 to 4, with rater training, has rendered high rater agreement above. Raters, however, seem to operate with different priorities when making decisions at the lower end of the scale.
Two trained raters rated 56 examinee responses. Based on transcriptions and detailed error analyses, a Performance Decision Tree PDT was developed with the purpose of fine-tuning the decision-making process at the lower levels of the scale and helping raters align better with each other and with the rating scale. This PDT guides raters to make grammaticality judgements of each item response and then identify semantic deviations at the word level.
Preliminary results show that 59 of the sentences Semantic deviations appear in 98 sentences This study has contributed to our ongoing rater training, with the construction of this PDT to help raters navigate through the lower end of the rating scale. Bras, H.
Benefits of journaling in L2 Composition. This presentation discusses the potential benefits of incorporating reflective journals to promote critical thinking and writing skills in college ESL settings. How these journals might be assessed to measure progress in English language development will also be explored.
Levy, M. English course paper. Language placement tests are a common method to assess students upon arrival at American universities. ACE-In, a test developed at Purdue for incoming international undergraduate students, was administered in this study. Scores for C-items of this test Module I were analyzed for their reliability in measuring language performance in a population of 22 Colombian students at Purdue.
Variation in item difficulty and item discrimination was also analyzed. A second instrument, a questionnaire regarding educational background information, including specific English language instruction details, was also applied to the test population. Item difficulty index for the ACE-In ranged from 0. Analysis of the item discrimination index showed a range between Both instruments appeared to be promising in detecting variability in proficiency levels across a diverse population of Colombian participants.
The degree of correlation between self-assessed language abilities and the scores was also positive but weak. On average, participants perceived that their language instruction prepared them adequately for reading and for listening, marginally for writing and poorly for speaking.
Although more research is needed, this study provided a good foundation for refining the instruments used to characterize Colombian students interested in pursuing either advanced degrees or research visits at Purdue. This research also served as a supporting element in the design of an intervention ESP course for this target audience.
Li, X. An evaluation of elicited imitation task: An item analysis using Classical Test Theory. Elicited imitation EI has been widely used to assess second language L2 proficiency. In an EI task, examinees are provided with a series of sentence stimuli and are expected to repeat the sentences as accurately as possible Larsen-Freeman, EI task design has been frequently investigated because the appropriate design of the task is essential to the validity of the instrument Erlam, One hundred undergraduate students who speak English as a Second Language took a pre-test at the beginning of the semester and a post-test at the end of the semester.
The item analysis results indicate that all four forms have shown similar item difficulty levels. Although a few items in each form have close item difficulty, the overall item difficulty and the spread of item difficulty are suitable for the current assessment purpose. When comparing pre-test and post-test exams, the item difficulty of most items has decreased. As for item discrimination, a few items that have low discrimination index may need modification or deletion, but the majority of the items have discrimination index above 0.
Item discrimination index has mostly remained stable in pre-test and post-test. This study offers insights into the features of well-designed EI items and suggestions of future modification of the current EI task. In addition, the comparison between pre-test and post-test item analysis provides information regarding items that are suitable for different stages of assessment.
Providing reliability evidence for EI using G Theory. Elicited imitation EI is a widely used approach to assess second language L2 proficiency. In an EI task, examinees are provided with a series of sentence stimuli with target language structures embedded, and examinees are asked to repeat the sentences as accurately as possible Larsen-Freeman, In the late s, EI received a series of critiques regarding its validity e.
The major criticism is that examinees may complete EI tasks using mere rote repetition instead of L2 knowledge. The aim of the present study is to provide reliability evidence for EI via using Generalizability Theory GT and offer suggestions for the future improvement of the test administration. The test scores of one hundred fifty-nine freshmen were analyzed in this study. The result from the Generalizability study G study shows that examinee effect is accounted for As the majority of the variance is contributed by the examinee effect, the study result suggests that the current EI test is a reliable measure of L2 proficiency.
Meanwhile, more rater training sessions is also desirable as the rater effect Although there are four forms of the current EI task, the form effect as well as the form-by-rater interaction effect are very small. A Decision study D study with 3 raters and 2 forms is also performed to explore further options of test administration.
The generalizability coefficient of the given D study is 0. PhD dissertation in progress. Elicited imitation EI was originally designed for first language L1 development research, but since the s, it also has been widely used in the SLA field. In the late s, EI underwent a series of critiques regarding its reliability and validity. The major criticism is the possibility of mere rote repetition in the EI tasks. In recent years, a resurgent interest in EI has been witnessed along with an increasing number of empirical studies validating and refining the EI tasks.
By examining the item difficulty, item discrimination and score reliability, this study explores how the EI tasks function as a measure of general proficiency. This study analyzed test samples of the Assessment of College English-International ACE-In , which is a locally developed language test for post-entry international undergraduate students.
Li, Y. The researcher has conducted statistical analysis for three GS quizzes which were taken by over participants. From analyzing the data set, the researcher have uncovered two noticeable findings regarding differences in coefficient of reliability amongst different forms and parts of a form when they have the same testing construct.
In addition, the researcher will also explain the part that the statistic results of this project fails to shed light on. Pimenova, N. Increasing your vocabulary size short course for international students. This short 6-week noncredit course was developed to help international students to improve their academic English vocabulary knowledge. Though this course was open for all international students enrolled in a large university in the Midwest, graduate students were our target population.
Since English language learners who took this class had different levels of English language proficiency, teaching them one list of academic words was not reasonable. In this course students set personal goals for vocabulary development and created action plans to achieve their goals.
By the end of the session, students were able to increase their vocabulary size by repeating and recycling new vocabulary; organizing new vocabulary in a meaningful way; making vocabulary learning personal; using strategic vocabulary in class; independently studying vocabulary in and out of class; keeping vocabulary notebooks; and using online dictionaries McCarten, J. At the end of the course students taught new words they learned to their peers.
In this work-in- progress presentation I will share what I learned as an instructor of Increasing Your Vocabulary Size course after piloting it in Fall Rucynski Jr. Prichard Eds. Lexington Books. This chapter describes two studies which involved L2 learners reading American jokes and those from other cultures. In order to make research-based recommendations for humor competency training and research, this chapter reviews the relevant scholarship related to joke comprehension to contextualize data collected by the author.
The first study analyzes how Chinese and Saudi students comprehended and appreciated different cultural jokes that they read in English. The second study examines how English language learners from Peru, Colombia, and Saudi Arabia perceived and understood various cultural jokes. In both studies, participants rated jokes for funniness and ease of comprehension. Before sharing the results of the original studies, I will explain some theories of humor. I will also examine how culture and L2 proficiency affect humor comprehension and appreciation.
Challenged by finding a more engaging tool to give ESL university students a chance to practice their reading, listening and speaking skills, the instructors chose Flipgrid as a video platform. For each video blog, students select a section from the assigned reading they find interesting, meaningful, or surprising.
Next, they record themselves reading a passage and explain the reason they chose it. The attendees will learn how to use this free, easy to use app and how to provide formative feedback to their students using custom assessment rubrics and video feedback. Rodriguez-Fuentes, R. While the number of graduate students from different parts of the world in the United States is decreasing, the trend in Latin American populations is the opposite.
Nonetheless, the current lack of information regarding the reasons behind this tendency, in terms of English language proficiency and cultural aspects, affects all parts involved: graduate students do not know what type of opportunities they can make use of; American universities do not have enough information to provide Latin American students with a sheltering environment; and Latin American governments are unable to make policies that encourage the application and facilitate admission to graduate school in American universities.
The aim of this study is to establish a starting point for understanding the linguistic and cultural complexities of the Latin American population in graduate school in the United States. To do so, surveys and interviews were carried out to explore academic experiences, cultural influences and socioeconomic patterns that influenced the admission of Latin American students to graduate school.
Mixed methods were used to describe the patterns of the survey responses quantitatively while leaving room for confirmatory quantitative analysis using the information of the interviews. The participants of this study were graduate students from Purdue University, one of the American universities with the highest number of Latin American graduate students. The results of this study underscore the importance of effective English language instruction during college years for reaching the graduate school admission scores, especially in cases when English language training during school was not possible or had little impact on the functional proficiency of the learner.
Also, there is a large body evidence indicating that undergraduate research internships could be one of the opportunities with the highest potential to recruit graduate Latin American students, regardless of their socioeconomic background. Shin, J. Accuracy and oral fluency are important aspects of oral proficiency.
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