The new bales are then transferred to cold storage where they await shipment to breweries using hop cones, or to processing plants that convert whole hops to pellets there are a few farmers who skip the bailing process and go straight from the drying floor to the pelletizer, but this is far less common.
Hop extracts are made from hop pellets because the small, dense pellets are much easier to handle than cones. The first step of the pellet process is converting bales into hop powder. The lupulin glands, those golden nuggets of hoppy goodness, are nestled at the base of the bracts and bracteoles. The strig is important to the hop cone because without the strig, there would be no cone or anything to hold the cone to the hop bine.
But the strig has no brewing value, so it is removed before the hop cone is turned into a powder. This is where some weight is lost, and explains why T90 pellets are not T pellets. With T90 pellets, the bracts, bracteoles, and lupulin glands are milled into a powder, and then pressed into a pellet. The main advantages of the T90 pellet in comparison to whole hops are: Easier to handle, less costly to store and ship, improved storage properties, increased hop utilization, and easier to separate from wort.
For these reasons, most breweries have migrated from whole cones to hop pellets over the last 30 years. The T90 pellet is pretty simple and there are certainly some things about this product that can be improved. The most obvious is further removal of the parts of the pellet that have minimal brewing value.
As stated above, the lupulin glands are nestled at the base of the bracts and bracteoles. If you take a hop cone and gently dissect it, you will observe that the tips of the bracts and bracteoles simply look like green petals, and you will observe that the lower portions are covered in a sticky yellow resin.
The yellow, sticky stuff is really what brewers want from hops. Figure out a way to keep this stuff and minimize the non-essential parts and you have a concentrated hop pellet. In a nutshell, this is what happens when hop cones are processed into T45 pellets. There are other things that can be done to pellets before shipping to the brewery. As the hop processor adds processing steps, the cost of the pellet increases, and the market for the pellet becomes smaller since not all brewers want the same sort of hop products.
What this means for the homebrewer and smaller craft brewer is that access to T45 pellets, stabilized pellets, and pre-isomerized pellets is pretty limited. As knowledge of his neurosurgical advancements spreads, he is much in demand as a speaker. A Macon native, Dr. Smisson received his undergraduate degree in Business Administration from Emory University in Two years later, he entered the Medical College of Georgia where he received his Doctorate of Medicine in After completing an internship in General Surgery at the Medical College of Georgia in , he entered a neurosurgical residence there, which he completed in before coming back to Macon to start his practice at Georgia Neurosurgical Institute.
Smisson was board certified in Neurological Surgery in and became a Fellow in the American College of Surgeons in He also served as a surgical Lieutenant Commander in the U. Navy Reserve. Call Request Medical Records. Johnston, MD Hugh F.